NAV in brief
The Net Asset Value (NAV) of a mutual fund is the price at which units of a mutual fund are bought or sold. It is the market value of the fund after deducting its liabilities. The value of all units of a mutual fund portfolio are calculated on a daily basis, from this all expenses are then subtracted. The result is then divided by the total number of units the resultant value is the NAV. NAV is also sometimes referred to as Net Book Value or book Value. Let’s discuss its calculation in a bit more detail.
NAV indicates the market value of the units in a fund. So, it helps an investor keep track of the
performance about the mutual fund. An investor can calculate the actual increase in the value of their investment by determining the percentage increase in the
mutual fund NAV. NAV, therefore, gives accurate information about the performance about the mutual fund.
Calculation of NAV
Mutual fund assets usually fall under two categories – securities & cash. Securities, here, include both bonds and stocks. Therefore, the total asset value of a fund will include its stocks, cash and bonds at market value. Dividends and interest accrued and liquid assets are also included in total assets.
Also, liabilities like money owed to creditors, and other expenses accrued are also included. Now the formula is:
Net Asset Value (NAV) = (Assets – Debts) / (Number of Outstanding units)
Assets = Market value of mutual fund investments + Receivables + Accrued Income
Debts = Liabilities + Expenses (accrued)
The market value of the stocks & debentures is usually the closing price on the stock exchange where these are listed.
Some points to note
The mutual fund itself and/or certain accounting firms calculate the NAV of a mutual fund. Since, mutual funds depend on stock markets, they are usually declared after the closing hours of the exchange.
Mutual Funds are required to publish their NAV at every business day as per SEBI guidelines.
Also, NAV is obtained after subtracting the expense ratio of a fund. This expense ratio is the total of all expenses made by the mutual fund annually, including the operating expenses and the management fees, distribution and marketing fees, transfer agent fees, custodian fees and audit fees.
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